Mining and metallurgy in ancient Perú / by Georg Petersen G. ; translated by William E. Brooks

Author(s): Petersen G., Georg, 1898-1985
Location:
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Subjects: Peru--Antiquities
Mines and mineral resources--Peru--History
Metallurgy--Peru--History
Formats: Print
Material Type: Books
Language: English, Spanish (translated from)
Audience: Unspecified
Published: Boulder, Colo. : Geological Society of America, 2010
Series: Special paper 467
Special papers (Geological Society of America) 467
LC Classification: T, TN
Table of Contents: Introduction to the English translation of Mining and Metallurgy in Ancient Peru / William E. Brooks
Preface: Georg Petersen Gaulke, 1898-1985 / C. Richard Petersen
Letter from Duccio Bonavia
Letter from Alfredo Gurmendi
Mining and Metallurgy in Ancient Peru
Prologue
Acknowledgments
Introduction 1
Chapter 1. Minerals, Gems, and Pigments 3
Paintings at Sacsahuaman 9
Pigments from Paracas 9
Pigments from Pachacamac 10
Polychromatic Pigments from Vieja Lima 10
Polychrome Murals from Panamarca 10
Miscellaneous (Pearls, Mother of Pearl, Mollusks, Abalone, Shark Teeth, and Silicified Wood) 12
Other Mollusks Found in Ancient Burials 14
Chapter 2. Ornamental and Industrial Stone 15
Construction 15
Igneous Origin 15
Sedimentary Origin 15
Metamorphic Origin 16
Statues, Stellae, Monoliths, Idols, and Other Purposes 16
Artifacts and Tools 17
Andesite, Granodiorite, Granite, Porphyry, and Diorite 17
Silicified Clay, Limey Clay, Silicified Slates 17
Quartz, Slate, Flint, Obsidian, Crystalline Quartz, Rose Quartz, Opal, Onyx, Topaz, Turquoise, and Others 18
Quarries, Building, and Construction Materials 18
Other Mineral Materials used for Construction 19
Toma Luz Center 20
Road Metal 21
Adobe 21
Adobon 21
Chapter 3. Metals 23
Gold 23
Colombia 23
Peru 23
Vein Occurrences 23
Alluvial Occurrences 24
Alluvial Gold Mining 26
Bolivia 27
Silver 27
Copper 28
Mercury 29
Additional Observations 29
Tin 29
Bolivia 29
Chile 30
Peru 30
Lead 30
Iron 31
Iron Minerals, Oxides, Hydroxides, and Sulfides 32
Platinum 33
Bolivia 33
Chile 33
Colombia 33
Ecuador 33
Peru 34
Rio Santiago 34
Piura-Tumbes 34
Lambayeque 34
Cerro de Pasco 34
Paracas 34
Cusco 34
Chapter 4. Mining 35
Ancient Mining Camps 35
Bolivia 35
Chile 35
Peru 35
Open-Pit Mining 35
Alluvial Occurrences 35
Mineralized Veins 35
Underground Workings 36
Mining Methods 36
Mining Tools 36
Stone Implements 36
Metal 37
Ceramic 37
Horn and Bone 37
Wood and Other Materials 37
Sites Where Tools Have Been Found 38
Peru 38
Argentina 38
Bolivia 38
Chile 38
Chapter 5. The Chuquicamata Mummy, an Ancient Mining Accident 39
Chapter 6. Inca Mining in the Altiplano 41
Etymology of Tilicacu 43
Quechua Etymology 44
Aymara Etymology 44
Chapter 7. Metallurgy 47
Gold 47
Silver 47
Curamba Smelter 48
Mercury 49
Tin 49
Copper 49
Qualitative Analysis of Native Copper from Peru 50
A Metallurgical Center at Chan Chan 51
Copper Metallurgy in Northern Chile 53
Copper Metallurgy in Bolivia 54
Chapter 8. Alloys 55
Gold-Silver 55
Gold-Copper 56
Depletion Gilding 57
Gold-Platinum 58
Silver-Copper 58
Silver-Tin 58
Copper-Lead 58
Copper-Silicon 59
Copper-Tin (Bronze) 59
In Quechua 59
In Aymara 59
Bronze Smelting 59
A Star-Shaped Bronze Clubhead 60
Copper-Arsenic 61
Other Copper Alloys 62
Chapter 9. Metalworking and Fabrication 63
Cold-Hammered Artifacts 63
Welding 63
Agglutination 63
Gilding 63
Casting (Lost Wax) 64
Chapter 10. Mirrors 65
Anthracite 65
Gold 65
Silver 65
Obsidian 65
Hematite 65
Bronze 66
Pyrite 66
Volcanic Rock 66
Endnotes 67
References Cited and Other Selected References 70
Figures 75
Appendix: Selected Bibliography 88
Cremation and the Chan Chan Burned Site 88
The Chuquicamata Mummy 88
Cinnabar, Mercury, and Small-Scale Gold Mining 88
Coal 88
General 89
Gold and Platinum 89
Guano/Fertilizer 89
Hazards 89
Minerals, Gems, and Pigments 90
Mining, Metallurgy, and Alloys 90
Ornamental and Industrial Stone 90
Petroleum 90
Salt 90
Terminology 90
Alternate Title(s): Minería y metalurgia en el antiguo Perú.
Additional Authors: Translator : Brooks, William E
Notes: LCCN: 2010003689
ISBN: 9780813724676 (pbk.)
ISBN: 0813724678 (pbk.)
Includes bibliographical references
Physical Description: xxi, 90 p. ; ill. (some col.) ; 28 cm
OCLC Number: 526806842
ISBN/ISSN: 9780813724676
0813724678

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