Concise encyclopedia of bioresource technology / Ashok Pandey, editor

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Subjects: Biotechnology--Encyclopedias
Formats: Print
Material Type: Books
Language: English
Audience: Unspecified
Published: New York : Food Products Press, c2004
LC Classification: T, TP
Table of Contents: Figures
Tables
About the Editor
Contributors
Foreword
R.A. Mashelkar
Preface
PART I: ENVIRONMENTAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Advances in Biological Wastewater Treatment 3
Veeriah Jegatheesan
C. Visvanathan
R. Ben Aim
Introduction 3
Conventional Biological Wastewater Treatment 5
Advanced Wastewater Treatment 7
Nutrients in Wastewater 8
Conclusions 11
Anaerobic Animal-Waste Environments: Salmonella Species Ecology 13
Steven C. Rieke
Introduction 13
Salmonella Physiology in the Anaerobic Waste Environment 13
Salmonella Pathogenicity in the Waste Environment 15
Conclusions 17
Biobeneficiation 19
Valentina Umrania
A.D. Agate
Introduction 19
Possible Mechanisms 19
The Practice 21
Conclusions 22
Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons 23
Rodolfo Canet-Castello
Joseph M. Lopez-Real
Angus J. Beck
Introduction 23
Biodegradation of PAHs by Aerobic Bacteria 24
Biodegradation of PAHs by Anaerobic Bacteria 25
Biodegradation of PAHs by Fungi 27
Biodegradation of PAHs by Algae 28
Conclusions 28
Biofiltration 31
Eldon R. Rene
D. Arulneyam
T. Swam inathan
Introduction 31
History of Biofiltration 32
Process Description 32
Mechanism of Biofiltration 33
Microbial Aspects of Biofiltration 34
Biofilter Media 35
Characteristics of an "Ideal" Biofilter 36
Performance Parameters 37
Advantages and Disadvantages of Biofiltration 38
Commercial Application of Biofilters 39
Conclusions 39
Biological Control of Air Pollution 41
S.N. Upadhyay V Kumar
Introduction 41
Process Description 42
Process Modeling and Design 48
Operation and Maintenance 48
Conclusions 51
Biomethanogenesis 53
Dalel Singh
Poonam Nigam Singh
Introduction 53
Biomethanation Plants and Digestors 54
Substrates for Biogas Production 56
Microbiology of Biomethanation 58
Biochemistry of Methane Synthesis 60
Conclusions 62
Bioremediation 63
Wan Azlina Ahrnad
Zainul Akmar Zakaria
Introduction 63
Bioremediation Methods 64
Applications of Bioremediation 66
Features of Bioremediation 68
Bioremediation-Success Stories 69
Conclusions 69
Methods for the Biological Treatment of Wastewater 71
Biological Reactors 71
P.K. Mishra
B.N. Rai
S.N. Upadhyay
Principles of Biological Treatment 71
Reaction Kinetics 74
Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment 76
Conclusions 80
Membrane Bioreactor 82
C. Uisvanathan
Introduction 82
Membrane Bioreactor Systems 83
Conclusions 91
Rotating Biological Contactors 92
Introduction 92
Process Modeling 94
Process Design 95
Nitrification and Denitrification 98
Effect of Temperature 100
Conclusions 100
Trickling Filters 102
Introduction 102
Recirculation 103
Process Microbiology 104
Process Modeling and Design 106
Conclusions 111
Waste Stabilization Ponds 113
Introduction 113
Classification of Pond Systems 113
Conclusions 121
Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion 123
R.S. Dubev
Introduction 123
Biofouling 125
Microorganisms Associated with Corrosion 126
Mechanism of Microbial Corrosion 129
Control and Monitoring of Microbial Corrosion 129
Conclusions 132
Treatment of Industrial Effluents 135
Distillery Effluent 135
Tim Robinson
Introduction 135
Problems Associated with Distillery Effluent 136
Treatment Technologies 137
Bioremediation of Distillery Effluent 140
Recycling Treated Distillery Effluent 141
Conclusions 141
Pulp and Paper Mill Effluent 143
Indu Shekhar Thakur
Introduction 143
Procedure of Pulping 144
Bleaching 144
Characteristics of Effluent 144
Problems Related to the Pulp and Paper Industry 145
Environmental Impact of the Pulp and Paper Mill 146
Effluent Treatment in the Pulp and Paper Mill 147
Conclusions 151
Removal of Heavy Metals from Wastewater 152
Wan Azlina Ahmad
Jefri Jaapar
Mior Ahrnad Khushairi Mohd Zahari
Introduction 152
Chemical Removal Processes 152
Biological Removal Processes 154
Conclusions 157
Tannery Effluent 158
Introduction 158
Leather Industry-World Scenario 158
Tanning Processes 158
Existing Pollution Problems 159
Impacts of Tannery Effluent 160
Pollution Prevention Opportunities 162
Conclusions 166
Textile and Dye Effluent 167
Haresh Keharia
Datta Madamwar
Introduction 167
Physicochemical Processes 168
Biological Treatment Processes 169
Conclusions 175
PART II: FOOD BIOTECHNOLOGY
Biopolymer Applications 179
Sudip Kumar Rakshit
Introduction 179
Starch 179
Cellulose 183
Chitin and Chitosan 184
Other Important Polymers 186
Conclusions 187
Biotransformations of Citrus Flavanone Glycosides 189
Guillermo Ellenrieder
Introduction 189
Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Flavanone Glycosides 191
Hydrolysis of the Citrus Flavanone Glycosides 194
Hydrogenation in Basic Medium to Produce Dihydrochalcone Sweeteners 196
Enzymatic Glycosylation and Esterification to Synthesize New Derivatives 197
Fermented Milk Products 201
V.K. Batish
Sunita Grover
Introduction 201
Yogurt 202
Dahl or Dadhi 203
Leben and Other Related Products 204
Lactic Beverages 207
New Developments in Fermented Milk Products 207
Functional Dairy Foods 208
Fermented Vegetables 211
Didier Montet
G₁rard Loiseau
Nadine Zakhia
Introduction 211
Lactic Acid-Fermented Vegetables 211
Nutritional Value of Lactic Acid-Fermented Vegetables 218
Some Recipes 220
Food Additive Production by Fermentation 225
Rekha S. Singhal
Pushpa R. Kulkarni
Introduction 225
Food Additives of Fermentation Origin 225
Conclusions 235
Food-Grade Yeast Production 237
Argyro Becatorou
Costas Psarianos
Introduction 237
Yeasts 238
Commercial Food-Grade Yeasts 239
Raw Materials in Food-Grade Yeast Production 241
Stages of Industrial Food-Grade Yeast Production 243
Conclusions 245
Kefir Yeast Technology 247
Matina Iconomopoulou
Introduction 247
Traditional Production of Kefir Grains 247
Morphology of Kefir Grains 248
Composition of Kefir Grains and Kefirlike Cultures 248
Fermentation and Chemical Composition of the Fermented
Product 249
Parameters Affecting the Fermentation 250
Kefir Production 251
Preservation of Kefir Grains 253
Kefir Grains and Kefir As Probiotics 253
Conclusions 254
Molecular Methods for Microbial Detection and Characterization for Food Safety 255
Suresh D. Pillai
James M. Totten
Introduction 255
Detection 256
Characterization 261
Conclusions 262
Mushroom Production 265
Dan Levanon
Ofer Danai
Introduction 265
The Mushroom Production Industry: Past and Present 266
Compost-Based Mushroom Production 267
Lignocellulose-Based Mushroom Production 270
Environmental Aspects 273
Conclusions 275
Nutraceutical Production and Use 277
Introduction 277
Mineral Fortification of Foods 278
Nutraceuticals from Plant Sources 278
Fish, Marine, and Dairy Products 281
Herbal Sources 283
Required Characteristics for Nutraceuticals 283
Consumer Concerns and the Future 284
Prebiotics and Probiotics 285
Introduction 285
Importance of Probiotics 286
Probiotic Organisms 287
Desirable Characteristics 288
Benefits of Probiotic Consumption 289
Sources of Prebiotics 290
Model Systems 291
Conclusions 291
Single-Cell Protein 293
Chundakkadu Krishna
Murray Moo-Young
Introduction 293
Need for Microbial Protein Production 294
Sources 294
Substrates 295
Nutritional Aspects of SCP 295
Limitations 297
Factors Affecting SCP Production 297
Commercial Production of SCP 298
Alternative Sources of SCP Production 298
Optimum SCP Production Parameters 300
Toxicity 301
Uses of SCP 303
Socioeconomic Problems and Cost Effectiveness 303
Conclusions 304
Vitamin Production by Fermentation 305
Introduction 305
Microbial Production of Vitamins 305
Conclusions 312
Xanthan Gum Production 315
Maria Papagianni
Introduction 315
General Properties 316
Xanthan 316
Gellan 317
Dextran 318
Scleroglucan 319
Biosynthetic Mechanisms and Production Kinetics 319
Fermentation 320
Product Recovery 321
PART III: INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY
Alcoholic Fermentation 327
Bacterial Alcoholic Fermentation 327
K. Chandraraj P. Gunasekaran
Introduction 327
Ethanol by Fermentation 327
Factors Affecting Ethanol Fermentation 328
Kinetics of Ethanol Fermentation 330
Process Improvement 331
Ethanol from Renewable Resources 332
Ethanol As an Automobile Fuel 333
Conclusions 333
Fruit-Based Alcoholic Beverages 335
Vinod K. Joshi
Somesh Sharma
Shashi Bhushan
Devender Attri
Quality Factors and Composition of Wines 335
Technology of Fruit Wine Preparation 339
Spoilage of Wine 343
Fruit Brandy: The Technology of Production 343
Conclusions 345
Fuel Ethanol Production from Renewable Biomass Resources 346
James Chukwuma Ogbonna
Feedstocks-Introduction 346
Renewable Biomass Materials Used for Ethanol Production 346
Feedstocks-Conclusions 351
Process Strategies-Introduction 353
Processes for Ethanol Production from Sugar Materials 353
Processes for Ethanol Production from Starch and Lignocellulosic Materials 356
Bioreactors 358
Process Strategies-Conclusions 361
Grape-Based Alcoholic Beverages 363
Ronald S. Jackson
Introduction 363
Table Wines 363
Sparkling Wines 368
Fortified Wines 369
Brandy 372
Wine Use 374
Malted Barley, Scotch Whiskey, and Beer 376
G.H. Palmer
Introduction 376
Malt Production 378
The Malting Process 379
Malt Spirit and Grain Spirit Production 382
Beer Production 386
Conclusions 392
Thermotolerant and Osmotolerant Yeasts for Alcoholic Fermentation 394
L. Venkateswar Rao
M. Sridhar
Introduction 394
Need for Thermotolerant and Osmotolerant Yeasts in the Ethanol Industry 395
Effect of Temperature on the Growth and Fermentation of Yeasts 396
Media Supplementation for Enhanced Osmotolerance and Thermotolerance 396
Mechanism of Osmotolerance and Thermotolerance 397
Fermentation Abilities of Isolated Osmotolerant and Thermotolerant Yeasts 400
Approaches for Obtaining Novel Thermotolerant and Osmotolerant Yeast Strains with Good Ethanol Yields 401
Conclusions 402
Alkaloids, Aflatoxins, and Other Secondary Metabolites: Production Techniques 403
Javier Barrios-GonzÞlez
Araceli Tomasini
Francisco J. FernÞndez
Armando Mejia
Introduction 403
Alkaloids 403
Aflatoxins 406
Other Secondary Metabolites 408
Conclusions 412
Amino Acid Production 413
K. Madhavan Nampoothiri
Introduction 413
Production Strains 413
Commercial Need for and Application of Amino Acids 415
Amino Acid Secretion-Physiology and Metabolic Concept 416
Amino Acid Secretion-Mechanisms and Concepts 419
Other Amino Acids 421
Conclusions 422
Antibiotic Production 423
Introduction 423
Secondary Metabolism 424
Regulation 427
Production 429
Genetic Improvement 430
Conclusions 431
Aroma Compound Production 433
Ali Kademi
Danielle Leblanc
Alain Houde
Introduction 433
Production of Aroma Compounds 434
Aroma Compound Biosynthesis Mechanisms 437
Applications of Aroma Compounds 439
Conclusions 442
Bioconversion of Agroindustrial Residues for Bioprocesses 443
Cassava Industry Residues 443
Carlos Ricardo Soccol
Ashok Pandey
Introduction 443
Microbial Strains Cultivated on Cassava Bagasse 446
Bioprocesses Involving Cassava Bagasse 447
Conclusions 451
Coffee Industry Residues 453
Introduction 453
Industrial Processing of Coffee Cherries 453
Physicochemical Composition of Coffee Pulp and Husk 455
Applications of Coffee Pulp and Husk 455
Conclusions 458
Palm Oil Industry Residues 460
Poonsuk Prasertsan
S. Prasertsan
Introduction 460
Residues from the Palm Oil Industry 460
Valuable Products from Palm Oil Wastes 461
Conclusions 465
Seafood Industry Residues 466
Introduction 466
Residues from the Seafood Industry 466
Valuable Products from Seafood-Processing Residues 466
Conclusions 473
Biodiesel Production and Application 475
Edward Crabbe
Ayaaki Ishizaki
Introduction 475
Sources of Raw Materials 476
Methods of Manufacture and Factors Affecting Production 477
Properties of Biodiesel versus Petroleum Diesel 478
Potential Technology Development: Biodiesel As a Solvent Extractant for In Situ Biodiesohol Production 479
Additional Authors: Pandey, Ashok
Notes: LCCN: 2003011486
ISBN: 1560229802 (hard : alk. paper)
Includes bibliographical references and index
Physical Description: liii, 735 p. : ill. ; 23 cm
OCLC Number: 52295308
ISBN/ISSN: 1560229802

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